Super supplements

The top vitamins and minerals

by Robin Wald, M.S.

as found in the October 1998 issue of Natural Living


  1. Vitamin A

    What it does: Sharpens eyesight, boosts immune function, fights infection, and promotes tissue healing.

    Why take it? Vegans are at risk for vitamin A deficiency, since it’s found only in animal foods. (Beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A in the body on a limited basis, but isn’t a substitute for getting vitamin A directly or in its pure form. You need both!) Recommended for infections, excessive menstrual bleeding, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, acne, and hypothyroidism.

    How much? 5,000-10,000 I.U. Don’t exceed 5,000 I.U. if you’re pregnant, since it can potentially cause birth defects. Vitamin A can raise liver enzyme levels, so check with a doctor before supplementing if you have a history of alcoholism or liver disease, or plan to take doses above 25,000 I.U. (Under usual circumstances, too much vitamin A can also cause hair loss.)

  2. The Carotenes (Beta-carotene, Alpha-carotene, Lycopene)

    What they do: Fight free radical oxidation, the fiendish process which causes cell breakdown, rapid aging, cancer, and degenerative disease. Lycopene (found in high concentrations in tomatoes) is the most powerful, followed by alpha-carotene, then beta-carotene.

    Why take them? Antioxidants are good basic prevention tools, warding of cancer and heart disease and slowing the aging process. Exposure to stress, pollution, chemicals, and pesticides increases your need even more.

    How much? The usual dose of beta-carotene is 25,000 I.U., but a therapeutic dose as high as 300,000 is safe (though it may turn skin yellow). For best effects, pop a pill with several carotenes in combo. And eat your fruits and veggies!

  3. B-Complex Vitamins

    What they do: Energize! B’s are key for energy metabolism, brain power, and nerve cell function.

    Why take them? You’re run-down, fatigued, fuzz-headed, or stressed out. Or you’re on the Pill, taking antibiotics, or drinking a lot - activities that deplete B-vitamin stores and interfere with their absorption from foods.

    How much? A good quality multi should include all of the B-vitamins, including thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin, folic acid, and cobalamin (B12) in a dosage range between 5-50 mg of each.

  4. Vitamin B6

    What it does: Juices metabolism, immune function, and nervous system. Helps cells multiply, and ensures healthy pregnancy. It is also a natural anti-depressant, helping produce neurotransmitters. Plus, B6 fights heart disease and osteoporosis by breaking down artery-clogging amino acid homocysteine in the blood.

    Why take it? For healthy menstruation, fertility, and pregnancy, and to treat PMS, enhance energy and mood, and fight disease. If you’re on the Pill, you’re at high risk for B6 deficiency.

    How much? 50-100 mg of B6 or pyridoxal 5-phosphate (its activated form). Check to see how much is in your multi, then supplement to fill the gap.

  5. Vitamin B12

    What it does: Helps cell production, nerve cell and immune function, energy metabolism, and homocysteine metabolism (see vitamin B6). Short-term deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia (treatable with a supplement); long-term shortfalls can mean brain damage.

    Why take it? You’re super-tired, get frequent colds, take the Pill, or drink alcohol. A simple blood test can let you know if you’re B12/folic acid anemic and need to supplement. Strict vegans should always take extra B12, since it exists only in animal foods (the form in fermented foods like tempeh and miso are not easily absorbed).

    How much? At least 100 mg for vegetarians. If you’re already deficient, take 2,000 mg per day for several months to re-establish normal levels or have your doctor give you B12 injections.

  6. Folic Acid

    What it does: Keeps cells splitting and DNA synthesizing, and boosts homocysteine metabolism. Folate deficiency in the first trimester of pregnancy may cause birth defects.

    Why take it? You plan to have a kid someday. Women of childbearing age should take at least 800 mg of folic acid. Extra folate also treats B12/folate-deficient (macrocytic) anemia, cervical dysplasia, and gingivitis, and helps prevent heart disease and osteoporosis.

    How much? 400 mg in a multi. You can take additional folic acid in a tablet, always with B12, since too much folic acid can mask a B12 deficiency. An oral folic acid rinse is good for gums. And eat those green leafies!

  7. Vitamin C

    What it does: Fights free radicals, immune-enhances, stimulates adrenals, detoxifies, and acts as an anti-histamine. It also helps make collagen, the protein that literally holds the body together.

    Why take it? To boost immunity. Vitamin C is recommended for infections, stress, allergies, asthma, cervical dysplasia, infertility, autoimmune disorders, diabetes, hepatitis, herpes, periodontal disease, heart disease, and cancer. Take extra C when you’re injured, to speed healing.

    How much? For general health, 500-3,000 mg of ascorbic acid is a good start, though a therapeutic dose is just below "bowel tolerance" – the amount which causes diarrhea. (Take ˝ teaspoon of buffeted powdered C in water each half-hour until diarrhea occurs. Your ideal dose is 75% of this amount, divided into 2-3 doses over the day.)

  8. Vitamin E

    What it does: Acts as a super-powerful antioxidant. Also offers major protection against heart disease by reducing "bad" LDL cholesterol and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol. Low levels of E are linked with cancer, diabetes, and reproductive problems.

    Why take it? You live with stress, pollution, and/or high-fat diet. (In other words, you exist.) Supplement to fight cancer, heart disease, stroke, and diarrhea, and to slow aging. Vitamin E also treats skin disorders, PMS, ulcers, hepatitis, infection, lupus, MS, AIDS, cervical dysplasia, and breast disease.

    How much? 400 I.U., or a therapeutic dose from 400-1,200 I.U. Natural d-alpha-tocopherol combined with tocotrienols is best. If you’re taking blood- thinning medication, consult your doctor.

  9. Vitamin D

    What it does: Builds bones. Vitamin D is actually a hormone that your body synthesizes from sunlight. It also helps prevent breast and colon cancer.

    Why take it? To prevent osteoporosis and reduce cancer risk. Vitamin D should be part of a multi- or bone-support supplement. Take extra in the winter months, when there’s less sunlight.

    How much? 200-800 I.U. in a good multi. Butter and egg yolks (or cod-liver oil and cold-water fish, for non-veggies) are rich food sources.

  10. Choline & Inositol, the Lipotropic Factors

    What they do: Burn fat. Lipotropic factors unclog the liver, aiding fat metabolism, and they keep the brain humming.

    Why take them? You’re trying to lower cholesterol, lose weight, sharpen memory, and/or detox your liver.

    How much? Look for a lipotropic supplement with 100-300 mg each of choline (or phosphatidylcholine) and inositol (or phosphatidylinositol), then take 1-3 times per day.


  1. Calcium

    What it does: Builds bones and teeth, and prevents preeclampsia and hyper-tension during pregnancy.

    Why take it? To stop osteoporosis – the bone loss leading to "old ladies hump." Calcium is also key to healthy pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    How much? 800 mg for women over 24. If you are under 24, pregnant, or lactating, you should take 1,200 mg. Best bet: A bone-building complex combining calcium with magnesium, vitamin D, and trace minerals.

  2. Magnesium

    What it does: Works with B6 to boost energy and enhance brain function, and builds strong bones.

    Why take it? You’ve got PMS, high blood pressure, and/or general fatigue – or you’re pregnant. Magnesium is also useful for muscle cramps, hypoglycemia, and heart rhythm disturbances, and to fight osteoporosis.

    How much? 400-1,000 mg.

  3. Iron

    What it does: Energizes, keeps oxygen moving, and boosts immunity. Low iron (anemia) is the most common nutrient deficiency in the United States – resulting in fatigue, mental fuzziness, and disease susceptibility.

    Why take it? You’re menstruating, pregnant, or anemic. Supplementing can raise aerobic capacity, so it’s especially useful for anemia-prone endurance athletes.

    How much? 15 mg for females age 11-50, in a good multi. A prenatal multi supplies the recommended 30-mg per day for pregnancy. Take iron with vitamin C, to enhance absorption – but separately form vitamin E, calcium and zinc, which make absorption tougher.

  4. Zinc

    What it does: heals wounds, boosts immune function, and help hormones function.

    Why take it? To maintain good health, heal wounds, and ensure healthy pregnancy and breast-feeding. Zinc is depleted by alcohol, antibiotics, and the Pill, and some veggie diets are low in it. It’s also useful for treating anorexia, bulimia, liver disease, and alcoholism.

    How much? 15-30 mg. For specific conditions, take up to 60 mg. Zinc should be taken with copper (in a ratio of 15 mg zinc: 1 mg copper) to prevent a zinc-induced copper-deficiency anemia.

  5. Chromium

    What it does: Keeps blood sugar in check, fighting hypoglycemia and diabetes. Chromium also lowers cholesterol and triglycerides, and it can improve your lean muscle mass to body fat ratio, promoting weight loss.

    Why take it? Because you eat too many refined carbs! The more baked goods, pasta, and bread you scarf, the more chromium you need. Supplement if you’re hypoglycemic, have high cholesterol, or want to increase muscle and shed fat.

    How much? 200-600 mg of chromium picolinate (the best form).

  6. Selenium

    What it does: Like C, E, and the carotenes, selenium protects cell membranes from free radicals. Low levels are linked to cancer, infertility, cardiovascular disease, and cataracts.

    Why take it? For healthy conception, pregnancy and breastfeeding, and to prevent cancer, cardiovascular disease, and degenerative disease.

    How much? 50-200 mg of selenium per day along with other antioxidants.

  7. Trace Minerals (Iodine, Copper, Manganese, Boron, Silica, Vanadium, Molybdenum)

    What they do: Build bones, cartilage, skin, teeth, hair, and nails. Iodine helps form thyroid hormone; molybdenum detoxes the liver; copper helps you absorb iron and produce red blood cells; and boron balance hormones.

    Why take them? To prevent osteoporosis, among other things. You need trace minerals along with calcium and magnesium for strong bones. If you have hypothyroidism, you may need extra iodine. And take copper to correct iron-deficiency anemia or when supplementing with zinc.

    How much? Your multi or bone-building complex should include trace minerals. Sea vegetables are also a source.

Accessory nutrients

  1. Essential Fatty Acids

    What they do: Prevent disease, by building cell membranes and nerve cells and forming hormone-like prostogladins. The essential fatty acid (EFA’s) include linoleic acid (omega 6) and alpha –linoleic acid (omega 3). EFA- low diets are linked with chronic degenerative disease, including cancer, heart disease, and strokes.

    Why take them? To stay healthy – the typical American diet tends to lack these "good fats." EFA’s help treat PMS, skin disorders, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, and menopause.

    How much? 1-2 tablespoons of flaxseed oil, high in both omega 3 and omega 6. Or you can take omega 6 fatty acids in the form of GLA (gamma-linoleic acid) or evening primrose oil, and omega 3’ as a combination of EPA and DHA fish oils, for non-vegetarians, 1-2 1,000 mg capsules are a good therapeutic dose.

  2. Bioflavanoids – Quercitin, Pycnogenol and Proanthocyanidins

    What they do: Fight inflammation, prevent cancer, and act as anti-histamines, anti-virals, and antioxidants. They’re also key for collagen, blood vessels, and skin.

    Why take them? As general disease fighters, and for allergies, easy bruising, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and viral infections like HIV and herpes.

    How much? Look for a bioflavonoid complex or a C supplement with bioflavanoids. Other sources include grapes or grape seed extract, berries, citrus fruits, red wine, and green tea.

  3. Bromelain and Digestive Enzymes

    What they do: Boost digestion. Enzymes and bromelain (a plant enzyme from pineapple) help your body use the food you eat. Bromelain is also a powerful anti-inflammatory.

    Why take them? You have an upset stomach, are overweight, and/or want to reduce symptoms of indigestion. Bromelain also helps treat allergies.

    How much? 1-3 capsules at the start of each meal.

  4. Coenzyme Q10

    What it does: Energizes! Coenzyme Q10 produces ATP, the body’s energy source, and protects against lipid peroxidation – a fancy phrase for the destruction of cell membranes.

    Why take it? You’re fatigued, or you want to improve your workout. Co Q10 will enhance muscle performance and aerobic capacity, boosting energy. Also use it to treat heat disease, high blood pressure, and immune deficiency, and to help prevent cancer.

    How much? 30-150 mg.

  5. Probiotics – Friendly Bacteria

What they do: Befriend your intestines. Good bacteria include lactobacillus, acidophilus, and bifidobacterium bifidum. Out-of whack gut flora (the normal bacteria in the digestive system) can result in candida overgrowth, poor nutritional absorption, allergies, immune disorders, and colon cancer.

Why take them? You’ve finished up a course of antibiotics, or you have recurring vaginal yeast infections, urinary tract infections, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, or allergies.

How much? One teaspoon of a refrigerated powdered probiotic supplement in some water once or twice per day, or the recommended dosage in capsule form. 

Click here to go to a printable dosage chart for all these great nutrients




Papaya Bleaching Scrub (Yin/yang)

Papaya’s natural enzymes soften the skin while exfoliating and bleaching it. Lemon is a great source of much-needed vitamin C and is also a great bleach. Honey moisturizes and revitalizes.

Makes 1 treatment

1 ripe papaya

1 lemon, juiced

1 tablespoon raw honey

Peel the papaya and place in a bowl. Mash thoroughly, then add the lemon juice and honey. Mix well, and rub on skin. Leave for 5 minutes, rinse off, pat skin dry with a soft towel.



A nutrient program for before and after surgery

Thus program, created by Elson Haas, M.D., is designed to speed tissue healing after surgery and to strengthen the immune system. Follow these recommendations for about three to four weeks prior to your surgery and four to six week after.


Vitamin A: 20,000 IU (Caution: this is a high dose of vitamin A. Only use this amount one to two weeks before surgery and two to three weeks afterward.)

Beta-carotene: 15,000 IU

Vitamin C: 4-6 grams

Vitamin D: 400 IU (vitamin E has been shown to slow healing time – this is a low dose.)

Vitamin K: 300 mcg

Thiamine (B1): 50 mg

Riboflavin (B2): 25-100 mg

Niacin (B3): 25 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5): 1,000 mg

Pyridoxine (B6): 50 mg

Cobalamin (B12): 200 mcg

Folic acid: 800 mcg

Biotin: 300 mcg

Inositol: 1,000 mg

Bioflavanoids: 500 mg



Boron: 2-3 mg

Calcium: 800-1,200 mg

Chromium: 200 mcg

Copper: 2-3 mg

Iodine: 100-200 mcg

Iron: 20 mg

Magnesium: 500-800 mg

Manganese: 10 mg

Molybdenum: 800 mcg

Potassium: 2-3 grams

Selenium, as selenomethione: 200 mcg

Silicon: 100-200 mg

Sulfur: 400-800 mg

Vanadium: 150-300 mcg

Zinc: 60-100 mg



L-amino acids: 1,000 mg

L-arginine: 500-1,000 mg

L-lysine: 500-1,000 mg

Lactobacillus: 2 billion organisms

Bromelain: 200-400 mg

Note: You do not need to purchase all of these supplements individually. A multivitamin may cove the bases for many of the vitamin and mineral recommendations; then you could supplement only those nutrients with the higher-recommended dosages, like vitamins A and C. Work with your health-care provider to come up with the best program for your individual situation.

Source: Haas, Elson. Staying Healthy with Nutrition. Berkeley, California: celestial Arts, 1992.











An Overview of the Chinese Medical Map

Yin & Yang

To understand Chinese medicine, one must first understand the concepts of Yin and Yang since these are the most basic concepts in this system. Yin and Yang are the cornerstones for understanding, diagnosing, and treating the body and mind in Chinese medicine. In a sense, all the other theories and concepts of Chinese medicine are nothing other than an elaboration of yin and yang. Most people have probably already heard of yin and yang but may only have a fuzzy idea of what these terms mean.

The concepts of yin and yang can be used to describe everything that exists in the universe, including all the parts and functions of the body. Originally, yin referred to the shady side of a hill and yang to the sunny side. Since sunshine and shade are two, interdependent sides of a single reality, these two aspects of the hill are seen as part of a single whole. Other examples of yin and yang are that night exists only in relation to day and cold only exists in relation to heat. According to Chinese thought, every single thing that exists in the universe has these two aspects, a yin and a yang. Thus everything has a front and a back, a top and a bottom, a right and a left, and a beginning and an end. However, a thing is yin or yang only in relation to its paired complement. Nothing is in itself yin or yang.

It is the concepts of yin and yang which make Chinese medicine a holistic medicine. This is because, based on this unitary and complementary vision of reality, no body part or body function is viewed as separate or isolated from the whole person. The table below shows a partial list of yin and yang pairs as they apply to the body.











Front of body

Back of body

Right side

Left side

Lower body

Upper body

Cool, cold

Warm, hot


Activity, movement


However, it is important to remember that each item listed is either yin or yang in relation to its complementary partner. Nothing is absolutely and all by itself either yin or yang. As we can see from the above list, it is possible to describe every aspect of the body in terms of yin and yang.



Qi (pronounced ‘chee’) and blood are the two most important complementary pairs of yin and yang within the human body. It is said that, in the world, yin and yang are water and fire, but in the human body, yin and yang are blood and qi. Qi is yang in relation to blood, which is yin. Qi is often translated as energy and energy is certainly a manifestation of Qi. Chinese language scholars would say, however, that qi is larger that any single type of energy described by the modern Western science. Paul Unschuld, perhaps the greatest living sinologist, translates the word qi as influences. This conveys the sense that qi is what is responsible for change and movement. Thus, within Chinese medicine, qi is that which motivates all movement and transformation or change.

Qi energy

The concept of Qi is difficult to define, although everybody really knows what it is. It is often translated as breath, life-force, vitality, energy, or simply as that which makes us alive. If there is no Qi, there is no life. A wilting plant is lacking in Qi; a feeble person and a weak voice both show a lack of Qi; strong, lively, energetic people have plenty of Qi. There is a lot of Qi at a children’s party; and there is a lot of Qi in quiet strength. In illness, the Qi is depleted, causing tiredness and depression; or it may be disturbed, causing irritability and over-reaction.

All of us know from our own experience what this Qi is and when it is flowing smoothly. Acupuncture makes a detailed study of Qi, dividing it into many different kinds depending on its function – such as nourishing or protecting. The proper quality, distribution, and even flow of Qi is of the utmost importance to health.

In Chinese medicine, qi is defined as having five specific functions:

  1. Defense

    It is qi which is responsible for protecting the exterior of the body from invasion by external pathogens. This qi, called defensive qi, flows through the exterior portion of the body.

  2. Transformation

    Qi transforms substances so that they can be utilized by the body. An example of this function is the transformation of the food we eat into nutrients to nourish the body, thus producing more qi and blood.

  3. Warming

    Qi, being relatively yang, is inherently warm and one of the main function of the qi is to warm the entire body, both inside and out. If this warming function of the qi is weak, cold may cause the flow of qi and blood to be congealed similar to cold’s effect on water producing ice.

  4. Restraint.

    It is qi which holds all the organs and substances in their proper place. Thus all the organs, blood, and fluids need qi to keep them from falling or leaking out of their specific pathways. If this function of the qi is weak, then problems like uterine prolapse, easy bruising, or urinary incontinence may occur.

  5. Transportation

Qi provides the motivating force for all transportation and movement in the body. Every aspect of the body that moves is moved by the qi. Hence the qi moves through the blood and body fluids throughout the body. It moves food through the stomach and blood through the vessels.



In Chinese medicine, blood refers to the red fluid that flows through out vessels the same as in modern Western medicine, but it also has meaning and implications which are different from those in modern Western medicine. Most basically, blood is that substance which nourishes and moistens all the body tissues. Without blood, no body tissue can function properly. In addition, when blood is insufficient or scanty, tissue becomes dry and withers.

Qi and blood are closely interrelated. It is said that, "Qi is the commander of the blood and blood s the mother of Qi." This means that it is qi which moves the blood but that it is blood which provides the nourishment and physical foundation for the creation and existence of qi.

In Chinese medicine, blood provides the following functions for the body:

  1. Nourishment

    Blood nourishes the body. Long with qi, the blood goes to every part of the body. When the blood is insufficient, function decreases and tissue atrophies or shrinks.

  2. Moistening

    Blood moistens the body tissues. This includes the skin, eyes, and ligaments and tendons or what are simply called the sinews of the body in Chinese medicine. Thus blood insufficiency can cause drying out and consequent stiffening of various body tissues throughout the body.

  3. Blood provides the material foundation for the spirit or mind.

In Chinese medicine, the mind and body are not two separate things. The spirit is nothing other than a great accumulation of qi. The blood (yin) supplies the material support and nourishment for the spirit (yang) so that it accumulates, becomes bright (i.e., conscious and clever), and stays rooted in the body. If the blood becomes insufficient, the mind can "float", causing problems like insomnia, agitation, and unrest.


Along with qi and blood, essence is the most important, essential material the body utilizes for its growth, maturation, and reproduction. There are two forms of this essence. We inherit essence from our parents and we also produce our own essence from the food we eat, the liquids we drink, and the air we breathe.

The essence which comes from our parents is what determines our basic constitution, strength, and vitality. We each have finite, limited amount of this inherited essence. It is important to protect and conserve this essence because all bodily functions depend upon it, and, when it is gone, we die. Thus the depletion of essence has serious implications for our overall health and well being. Happily, the essence derived from food and drink helps to bolster and support this inherited essence. Thus, if we eat well and do not consume more qi and blood than we create each day, then when we sleep at night, this surplus qi and more especially blood is transformed into essence.

The Viscera and Bowels

In Chinese medicine, the internal organs (called viscera so as not to become confused with the Western biological entities of the same name) have a wider area of function and influence than in Western medicine. Each viscus has distinct possibilities for maintaining the physical and psychological health of the individual. When thinking about the internal viscera according to Chinese medicine, it is more accurate to view them as spheres of influence or as a network that spreads throughout the body, rather than as a distinct and separate physical organ as described by Western science. This is why the famous German sinologist, Manfred Porkert, refers to them as orbs rather than as organs. In Chinese medicine, the relationship between the various viscera and other parts of the body is made possible by the channel and network vessel system which we will discuss below.

In Chinese medicine, there are five main viscera which are relatively yin and six main bowels which are relatively yang. The five yin viscera are the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and kidneys. The six yang bowels are the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gallbladder, urinary bladder, and a system that the Chinese medicine refers to as the triple burner. All the functions of the entire body are subsumed or described under these eleven organs or spheres of influence. Thus Chinese medicine as a system not have a pancreas, a pituitary glands, or the ovaries. Nonetheless, all the functions of these Western organs are described under the Chinese medical system of the five viscera and six bowels.

Within this system, the five viscera are the most important. These are the organs that Chinese medicine says are responsible for the creation and transformation of qi and blood and the storage of essence. For instance, the kidneys are responsible for the excretion of urine but are also responsible for hearing, the strength of the bones, sex, reproduction, maturation, and growth, the lower and upper back, and the lower legs in general and the knees in particular.

Visceral Correspondences







Bones/head hair







Ethereal soul








Skin/body hair


Corporeal soul

Grief / sadness


blood vessels



Joy / fright

This points out that the Chinese viscera may have the same name and even some overlapping functions but yet are quite different from the organs of modern Western medicine. Each of the five Chinese medical viscera also has a corresponding tissue, sense, spirit, and emotion related to it. These are outlines in the table above.

In addition, each Chinese medical viscus or bowel possesses both a yin and a yang aspect. The yin aspect of a viscus or bowel refers to its substantial nature or tangible form. Further, an organ’s yin is responsible for the nurturing, cooling, ad moistening of that viscus or bowel. The yang aspect of the viscus or bowel represents its functional activities or what it does. An organ’s yang aspect also warming. These two aspects, yin and yang, form and function, cooling and heating, when balanced create good health. However, if either yin or yang becomes too strong or too weak, the result will be disease.


Wu Xing –the Five Phases or Elements

The Five Phases are Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water. Just as Yin/Yang represents a spinning unit of rest/activity, of dark/light, of inward and outward movement, so the Five Phases represent five different movements or aspects of energy, five energetic tendencies, five vibratory rates.

There are two Yin seasons (Autumn (Fall) and Winter) and two Yang seasons (spring and Summer)

click here to view the                                                        

Traditional Table of Correspondences According to the Five Elements

Spring is the season or growth and burgeoning energy. It exemplifies the change from Yin to Yang, pushing what is inside outside with the forceful impetuosity of the Wood Phase. Its climate is Wind – fast, penetrating

Mists, mellow fruitfulness and a certain sadness characterizes the Western notion of Autumn. In Chinese philosophy it is also linked with sadness, a time of withdrawal and contraction as Yang turns to Yin, the Metal Phase where the leaves dry up and fall and the fruits are set containing the seeds for the coming year.

click here for a table of correspondences between zang organs and secretions, emotions, colors etc.

And come back soon for more!!

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